St. Peter's Episcopal Church in Salem Constructed in 1833, St. Peter's Episcopal Church in Salem rests on the same site the original Episcopal Church occupied for which Philip English donated land in 1734. It would have been one of the many places of worship familiar to Hawthorne during his years in Salem.
St. Peter's Church, Salem Constructed in 1833, St. Peter's Episcopal Church in Salem rests on the same site the original Episcopal Church occupied for which Philip English donated land in 1734. It would have been one of the many places of worship familiar to Hawthorne during his years in Salem. (courtesy of the Peabody Essex Museum; special thanks to Bryant F. Tolles, Jr.)
Site of the Salem Village Meeting House, 1692 Site of the First Church, Danvers (Salem Village)
Corner of Forrest and Hobart Streets
(Frank Cousins Photo, c. 1891) (courtesy of Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, MA)
First Church (Daniel Low Building), 121 Washington St., 231 Essex St. Mall First Church, established in 1629, was the first Protestant church in America. Rebecca Nurse and Giles Cory, two victims of the witchcraft hysteria in 1692, were members, and most of the Hathorne family also belonged to this church. Nathaniel's grandfather and grandmother were members; Hawthorne's mother, Elizabeth Clarke Manning Hathorne, joined First Church in 1806, and her children were baptized there.
In the early 1800s, the church became Unitarian in its theology. In 1824, Charles W. Upham became associate pastor with John Prince, and after Prince's death in 1836, became pastor. He remained in this position until 1844 when he left the post because of illness. Margaret Moore points out in The Salem World of Nathaniel Hawthorne that "Hawthorne wrote in Our Old Home that only fond memories of John Prince of First Church helped him retain 'a devout, though not intact nor unwavering respect for the entire fraternity of ministers'(CE 5:28)." (110).
First Church was originally located in Town House Square, but in 1734, after a dispute between the minister, John Fisk, and some members of his congregation, Fisk and his supporters built a new First Church at 256 Essex St., a short distance from their original location. In 1772, the church broke into five different churches and rejoined in later years.
This building was constructed in 1826; the second floor was used by First Church and the first floor was rented to shopkeepers. In 1874, the church was enlarged and extensively remodeled in the High Victorian Gothic style. In 1922, the First Church merged with North Church (Unitarian) and moved to the North Church building at 256 Essex St. Daniel Low and Company then acquired the property at 121 Washington St. (courtesy of the Peabody Essex Museum; special thanks to Bryant F. Tolles, Jr.)
Salem Witch Museum, 19 1/2 Washington Square North at Brown Street (formerly East Church; built in 1844-46) This building has been the home of the Salem Witch Museum since 1972. (photography by Lou Procopio)
Salem Witch Museum (built for East Church in 1844-46; home of the Witch Museum since 1972), 19 ½ Washington Square North at Brown St. (built in 1844-46) The East Church, organized in 1718, was the oldest branch of the First Church of Salem. Hawthorne’s Manning grandparents attended East Church, a liberal Unitarian congregation led by Dr. William Bentley from 1783-1819. Hawthorne’s mother, Elizabeth Clarke Manning, also attended East Church as a young girl when Dr. Bentley was pastor. She joined First Church in 1806, however, and had her children baptized there. According to Gilbert L. Streeter in “Salem Before the Revolution,” EIHC, 32 (1896), the East Church meeting-house was located near the corner of Essex and Hardy streets (87). The building was demolished in 1845, however, and a new church was built at 19 ½ Washington Square North at Brown St between 1844 and 1846. This Gothic Revival building today houses the Salem Witch Museum. (courtesy of the Peabody Essex Museum; special thanks to Bryant F. Tolles, Jr.)
Old South Church in Boston Hawthorne mentions Old South Church in "Howe's Masquerade" in Colonial Stories. The Province House, mentioned in all the stories in this collection, is located across the street from Old South Church; the church stands on what was once Governor Winthrop's estate, and it is here where he died. Hawthorne refers to Winthrop's death in The Scarlet Letter.
Crombie Street Church, 7 Crombie St., Salem This Federal-Greek Revival building was originally constructed to house a theatre in 1827-28. The theatre was unsuccessful, however, and ceased its existence in 1830. In 1832 the building was purchased by a group of dissenting parishioners from the Howard Street Church who called themselves the New Congregational Church and later the Crombie Street Church. The church was rebuilt after a fire damaged the interior in 1934, but the exterior remains almost unchanged. (courtesy of the Peabody Essex Museum; special thanks to Bryant F. Tolles, Jr.)
Tabernacle Church, Washington and Federal Sts., Salem Established in 1735 as a branch of the First Church, and calling itself "The First Church of Salem," Tabernacle Church built a meeting house in 1736 near 256 Essex St. Until 1762, Salem thus had two churches calling themselves, First Church. At that time, the government required the church that separated to change its name, so it became Third Church of Christ in Salem. When that house of worship was destroyed in the Great Fire of 1774, a new building was erected in 1777 that resembled London's Tabernacle, and soon was referred to as The Tabernacle. Eventually the church took this as its legal name.
One of the most orthodox congregations in Hawthorne's time, it was led by Dr. Samuel Worcester (1770-1821), who was installed as minister in 1803 and who was one of the leading voices of the conservative view in New England. His sermons were highly regarded; Leverett Saltonstall, a leading Unitarian lawyer in Salem, admired them because of their mixture of emotion and reason, even though he was aware that Worcester was a strict calvinist.
In 1924 the Tabernacle Church merged with South Church, and the current Colonial Revival building was constructed, replacing a large wooden Italian Revival building which was the home of the Tabernacle Church from 1854 until it was demolished in 1922. From 1776 to 1854, the building that stood on this ground was occupied by the Tabernacle Church and in 1805 featured a three-stage tower added by Samuel McIntire. This is the building that Hawthorne would have known. (courtesy of the Peabody Essex Museum; special thanks to Bryant F. Tolles, Jr.)
First Baptist Church, 56 Federal St. This church was erected in 1805-6. In 1850 it was expanded, and its exterior was rebuilt in an Italianate style in 1850. It originally featured a three-stage Federal tower and octagonal dome, but this was removed in 1926 because of the cost of renovations undertaken at that time (courtesy of the Peabody Essex Museum; special thanks to Bryant F. Tolles, Jr.)
First (North) Church (Unitarian), (North Church until 1923; First Church thereafter), 316 Essex St. This building is the second meeting house of the North Church, which separated from the First Church in 1772; the original building was located at the corner of "Curwen's Lane" (North St.) and "The New Lane" (later Lynde St.). When the two churches merged again in 1923, this building became the home of First Church. Constructed in 1835-36, it is considered, along with St. Peter's Church, to be among the finest stone masonry Gothic Revival churches in the United States. Francis Peabody, a parishioner who oversaw the construction, is said to have led the argument for a building in the Gothic Revival style.
North Church was one of the three more liberal churches in Salem in Hawthorne's time. It was the church attended by the Peabody family and also by Jones Very (1813-1880), a mystic, Unitarian minister, and poet. Some in Salem thought Very insane, but the Transcendentalists were intrigued by him as was Hawthorne who was friends with him in the late 1830s, according to Margaret Moore in The Salem World of Nathaniel Hawthorne(215).
N.B. Margaret Moore presents the interesting convergence of what is now First Church with the Hathornes and Thomas Maule in her book The Salem World of Nathaniel Hawthorne. She says that across the street from First Church were the houses of Philip English and Thomas Maule. The English house was inherited by John Touzel; after his death, Touzel's widow shared ownership with William and Mary Touzel Hathorne, and then Sophia Peabody's family later lived in William and Mary's half of the house. Also, Moore says that Mary Hathorne, daughter of William, "owned a house on the other side of Essex Street, just in front of the land on which First Church now stands. It stood on part of Thomas Maule's orchard. She willed this house to her sister, Ann Hathorne Savage, but the will was lost, found much later, and then stolen. So, one Hathorne house on the southern side of Essex was next door to the Maule house; the other on the northern side stood on what had been his garden. Maule's garden is important in The House of the Seven Gables. The juxtaposition of the Hathorne house with the Maule land, the garden, the lost will, the witchcraft accusations: all make another possible Hawthorne connection to witchcraft" (45-46).
(courtesy of the Peabody Essex Museum; special thanks to Bryant F. Tolles, Jr.)
Methodist Church and Parsonage, Sewall St., Salem Postcard from 1916 of the Methodist Church and Parsonage in Salem, MA (special thanks to Margaret B. Moore)
Charter Street Burying Point, established 1637; oldest cemetery in Salem Charter Street Burying Point, Oldest cemetery in Salem, established in 1637. (photography by Bruce Hibbard)
Charter Street Graveyard and Peabody (Grimshawe) House in Salem Judge Hathorne and seven other Hathornes are buried here, but Hawthorne is buried in Concord. The Peabody House is where Sophia lived with her parents when Hawthorne courted her. It is also the setting of "Grimshawe" and the unfinished novel,The Dolliver Romance. (courtesy of Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, MA)
John Hathorne, 1717, Charter St. Burying Ground Slate gravestone of Magistrate John Hathorne (1641-1717), Charter Street Cemetery, Salem (The Burying Point, 1637). Hawthorne's great-great grandfather was at the center of the witchcraft hysteria of 1692--as an interrogator of the accused and as a member of the infamous Court of Oyer and Terminer. (Photography by Joseph R. Modugno)
Timothy Lindall, 1698,99, Salem (full) Timothy Lindall (Photography by Joseph R. Modugno)
Timothy Lindall, left border, Salem Left border of the Timothy Lindall Stone, Charter Street Burial Ground, Salem. (Photography by Joseph R. Modugno)
Timothy Lindall, right border, Salem (Photography by Joseph R. Modugno)
Rev.John Hale Gravestone, 1700, Beverly, Massachusetts. In 1664 John Hale became minister of the church at "Bass River," which became the town of Beverly in 1667. He held this position for over thirty years. He supported the Salem witch hunt of 1692 until his second wife, Sarah (Noyes), was accused of witchcraft, at which time he changed his opinion. He is buried next to his wives in the Hale Family plot, not far from his house in Beverly, Massachusetts. (Photography by Joseph R. Modugno)
"Snow Image," frontispiece illustration by Frederick Church from vol 3, The House of the Seven Gables and The Snow Image and Other Twice-Told Tales In contrast to the somber gravestone images with which Hawthorne would have been familiar, this image by Frederick Church, which served as the frontispiece illustration from volume 3 of the 1883 Riverside Press edition of The House of the Seven Gables and The Snow Image and Other Twice-Told Tales captures and innocent spirit that occasionally appears in such pieces as "The Snow Image" and "Little Annie's Ramble." Romanticized and whimsical, the drawing points us to one possible version of Hawthorne's idea of goodness. (courtesy of Halldor F. Utne)
This illustration which appears opposite the title page of "The Snow-Image and Other Twice-Told Tales" and opposite p. 379 in vol. 3 of Seven Gables and The Snow-Image, and other Twice-Told Tales carries a sense of youthful feminine innocence suggestive of the gentle kindness Hawthorne celebrated in characters such as Mary Goffe of "The Man of Adamant" and Annie in "Litte Annie's Ramble." from the 15 vol. 1883 Riverside Press edition of Hawthorne's works. (courtesy of Halldor F. Utne)
The Virgins of the Church from chapter entitled "The Interior of a Heart" in The Scarlet Letter Illustration from the 1878 edition of The Scarlet Letter published by Charles R. Osgood & Co. in Boston. Illustration drawn by Mary Hallock Foote and engraved by A.V.S. Anthony. (172)
The Massacre of Ann Hutchinson Illustration from A Popular History of the United States by William Cullen Bryant. New York, Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1896.
(courtesy of The Boston Public Library.)
John Winthrop (1588-1649), Governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony, 1630-1649, engraving On June 12, 1630, John Winthrop, on board the flagship Arbella, landed at Naumkeag (Salem) and replaced John Endecott as governor. Soon after, Winthrop and his fleet of ships and Puritan colonists went on to "Mystic River" (Charlestown) and then to the Shawmut Peninsula (Boston). With the coming of Winthrop and the founding of Massachusetts Bay Colony, the "Puritan Experiment" in New England began. Rapid settlement occurred between 1630 and 1642, when approximately 21,000 English immigrants arrived in New England. The Puritan emigrants and their descendants set out to create a society based on Scripture, and as John Winthrop declared, one that should be a "Model of Christian Charity," "a city upon a hill."
From vol. 1 , S. Perley's The History of Salem Massachusetts, 1924, p. 188 (courtesy of Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, MA)
Portrait of Cotton Mather (1663-1723) Cotton Mather was one of Puritan New England's most influential ministers and leaders. He was famous for his writings, histories such as Magnalia Christi Americana and those that helped stir up support for the Salem Witchcraft Trials of 1692. He also promoted learning and early scientific knowledge in New England. He worked for acceptance of the smallpox vaccine and wrote a treatise on medicine called The Angel of Bethesda.
(courtesy of Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, MA)
Portrait of Charles W. Upham (1802 - 1876) Charles W. Upham was an author, minister of the First Church, and after resigning that post, a political leader in Salem. He was instrumental in having Hawthorne removed from his position in the Custom House in 1849. Hawthorne satirizes Upham in a number of his works, making him out to be a scoundrel in both The Scarlet Letter and The House of the Seven Gables.
(courtesy of Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, MA)
Portrait of Rev. William Bentley (1759-1819) of Salem by Frothingham Educated at Harvard, William Bentley was the minister at the East Church (Second Congregational} in Salem from 1783 until his death in 1819. His personal diary offers a thorough treatment of life in Salem during its golden era of East India Trade.
(courtesy of Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, MA)
Derby Wharf and Salem Harbor shoreline, painting by Fred Freeman, c. 1803 Freeman’s painting offers a powerful image of human beings harmoniously engaged in a common pursuit. According to Claudia Durst Johnson Hawthorne saw these moments and both valuable and fleeting. To work with others toward a common goal is to subordinate the self to the welfare of the larger whole, an attitude in direct opposition to the damaging pride that aflicts so many of Hawthorne's villains. The attitude has a humility in it that brings to mind Hawthorne's virtuous figures such as Earnest of "The Great Stone Face" or The Scarlet Letter's Hester Prynne in her moments that approach selfless charity.
(courtesy of Salem Maritime National Historic Site)
Salem Athenaeum, 337 Essex St. in Salem, in 2000
In The Salem Athenaeum began as part of the Social Library on Market Street, now known as Central Street, in Salem. It opened on July 11, 1810, but moved three times to various sites in Salem over the next forty years. In 1845, however, a bequest from Caroline Plummer enabled the Athenaeum to erect a building, the original Plummer Hall, at 134 Essex Street. The Athenaeum shared this building with the Essex Institute until 1905, when Plummer Hall was sold to the Essex Institute (now the Peabody Essex Museum), and with the proceeds constructed the building it currently occupies at 337 Essex St.
By 1837 the Salem Athenaeum housed 8,000 volumes. According to Hawthorne scholar Margaret Moore in her book The Salem World of Nathaniel Hawthorne, it was the "pooled holdings of the Philosophical and Social Libraries, which merged in 1810," six years after Hawthorne's birth (158). The Athenaeum supplied Hawthorne with a tremendous amount of reading material during his Salem years.
William Manning (1779-1864), Hawthorne's maternal uncle, owned a share in the Salem Athenaeum from 1820-1827. Mary Manning (1777-1841) also was a member from 1826; she later gave this share to Hawthorne. Today this same share is owned by David Gavenda of the National Park Service. (photography by Terri Whitney)
Egg Rock, Nahant, near Swampscott
from Hawthorne's Country by Helen Archibald Clarke, The Baker and Taylor Co., 1910, opposite p. 19 Elizabeth Hawthorne told Julian that around 1833, after a visit of several weeks to nearby Swampscott, Hawthorne "came home captivated in his fanciful way with a mermaid, as he called her. He would not tell us her name, but said she was of the aristocracy of the village, the keeper of a little shop. She gave him a sugar heart, a pink one, which he kept a great whle, and then (how boyish and how like him!) he ate it. You will find her, I suspect, in 'The Village Uncle.' She is Susan. He said she had a great deal of what the French call espieglerie. At that time he had fancies like this whenever he went from home" (qtd. in Clark, 38). (courtesy of Terri Whitney)